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Tritium and Helium-3 in Metals by Dr. Rainer Lässer (auth.)

By Dr. Rainer Lässer (auth.)

Hydrogen can behave as an alkaline steel or a halogen and will react with approximately all components of the periodic desk. This explains the massive variety of steel hydrides. seeing that T. Graham's first remark of the absorption of hydrogen in palladium in 1866 the behaviour of hydrogen in metals has been studied very largely. The curiosity used to be inspired by means of the prospective program of metal-hydrogen platforms in new applied sciences (e.g., moderator fabric in nuclear fission reactors, reversible garage fabric for thermal power and massive quantities of hydrogen) and via the truth that steel hydrides convey very interesting actual houses (e.g., superconductivity, quantum diffusion, order-disorder transitions, section diagrams, etc.). lots of those houses were made up our minds for the strong hydrogen isotopes Hand D in numerous metals. compared, little or no is understood concerning the behaviour of the ra­ dioactive isotope tritium in metals. This ebook is a primary try to summarize a part of the data of tritium won within the previous few years. as well as the duty of proposing the houses of tritium in metals, i've got attempted to match those information with these of protium and deuterium. additionally, helium-3 is hooked up inse­ parably with tritium through the tritium decay. for this reason one bankruptcy of this booklet is just dedicated to the curious homes of helium in metals triggered as a rule by way of its negligible solubility.

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The main reasons for this choice were: firstly, that at a given temperature, the absorption and desorption pressures can be tailored to the specification of the different applications by a simple variation of the Al concentration in the alloy; secondly, that the LaNis_x A~ material does not show significant disproportionation after many charging and temperature cycles in contrast to most other binary or ternary alloys. The prevention of disproportionation is very important in the case of tritium storage because otherwise tritium would become trapped in one component (for example, in the La metal) with a very low equilibrium pressure.

The hydrogen diffuses through· the generated welding points from the hydrogen doped sample into the sample to be charged. During the spot welding process only a very small part of the sample will be heated, and the oxygen atoms can only diffuse during the very short time of welding. The main part of the samples thus loaded (mainly foils) will therefore be free of oxygen contamination. The charging times depend on the number and quality of the junctions, on the dimensions of the foils, and on the temperature.

Tritium gas of purity better than 98% is commercially available. 1012 Bq (lOOCi) can be bought in glass ampoules which are readily shipped. 1. The main components, the uranium tritide storage container (1), the sample chamber (2) and the capacitance manometers (3a and b) will be described in more detail below. 8,9] deliver the H2 and D2 gas for isotopic studies of the solubility. After a sample change, the air in the sample chamber is pumped by a turbo-molecular pump (6) and a rotary pump (7). The final vacuum is obtained with the ion getter pump (5) which is also used to pump the residual noble gas not absorbed in the UTr storage container (1).

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