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Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and by Ronald C. Wester, Howard I. Maibach (auth.), Vinod P. Shah,

By Ronald C. Wester, Howard I. Maibach (auth.), Vinod P. Shah, Howard I. Maibach (eds.)

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Price et al. 2. 1. Nitroglycerin History and Transdermal Rationale In 1879, Murrell described the potential use of nitroglycerin in the treatment of angina pectoris. Munitions-industry workers constantly exposed to nitrates became nitrate dependent. A sudden or temporary withdrawal from nitrate exposure would lead to severe headaches, chest pain, and even sudden death . Workers would often spread nitroglycerin in the sweatbands of their hats, which would deliver nitroglycerin through the skin. This allowed them to avoid a temporary withdrawal of this nitrate during their time off work.

Shah and Howard I. Maibach. Plenum Press, New York, 1993. 17 18 GARY W. CLEARY However, human beings have been placing salves, lotions, and potions on their skin for centuries. Since the early 1900s, we have learned more about the biology of skin, body chemistry, and diseases than had been learned over many centuries. Post-World War II technologies of electronics, medicine, and chemistry have contributed to better analytical instrumentation, more sensitive drug assay methodology, and the understanding of how the body can affect drug metabolism .

Pershing LK. Krueger GG . Human skin sandwich flap model for percutaneous absorption. In: Bronaugh R. Maibach H. eds, Percutaneous Absorption. 2nd ed . New York : Marcel Dekker: 1989:397-414. PERCUT ANEOUS ABSOR PT IO N 15 14. Wester RC, Noonan PK , Smeac h S. Kosobud L. Pharm acokinetics and bioavailability of intraveno us and topi cal nitroglycerin in the Rh esus monkey: estima te of percu ta neo us first-pass metabol ism . J Pharm S ci. 1983;72:745-748 . 15. McKenzie AW. Sto ughto n RB. Method for co mpa ring percuta neo us abso rptio n of stero ids.

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