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Extra resources for Cool Appliances (Energy Efficiency Policy Profiles)
In some OECD countries it is common practice to heat hot water for drinks in the microwave or on the stove top (hot plate) while in others specialised electric or gas kettles are used. In some countries coffee makers are the main drinks related end-use. The share of residential electricity used by consumer electronics has grown appreciably over recent years, which reflects the growing number and diversity of such appliances in the home. Among these appliances, televisions are the most widespread and have the highest overall energy use.
1 TWh in 1990. 6% was consumed by heat pumps. In general, when households have access to natural gas, gas is preferred as the primary heating source due to the lower running costs. When piped gas is not available, most IEA Households are heated by oil or electric heating. Electric heating is particularly commonplace in regions where electricity tariffs have traditionally been very low, as in Norway where most electricity is from hydroelectric sources; when there is no access to a gas main, as is common in many remote communities and some whole regions; and when there is a low annual heating demand.
Most North American washing machines draw hot water from the central water tank whereas most machines in OECD Europe, with the exception of some in the UK and Ireland, heat the water directly in the appliance. Until recently almost all North American appliances have used vertical axis drums, which are inherently less water and energy-efficient than the horizontal axis drums traditionally used in Europe. Furthermore, the capacity of most North America washing machines is appreciably greater than in Europe and the 46 1 ELECTRICITY DEMAND AND CO2 EMISSIONS OF APPLIANCES rest of the OECD, although in itself this does not necessarily imply higher overall energy consumption because wash frequency and clothes-loading patterns also have to be considered.