By M. Bahadir, G. Pfister (auth.), Dr. G. Haug, Prof. Dr. H. Hoffmann (eds.)
Since the center of the Sixties, new different types of formula for biologically lively com kilos were built, that have been brought into the literature lower than the time period managed liberate Formulations (CRF). motivated via effects from former and winning pharmaceutical learn, which used to be engaged within the construction of prepa rations with protracted results (introduction onto the marketplace within the 12 months 1952 of D amphetamine within the type of pellets, covered to various levels with fat and waxes) 1), experiments have been performed to move the prolongation of effectiveness to pesticidal elements additionally, by way of a depot formula. preliminary paintings used to be considering the creation of protecting coatings for sonar structures in marine ecosystems. by way of antifouling paints or rubber coatings containing tri-n-butyl-tin oxide (TBTO), the expansion of marine organisms on sonar domes, buoys and hulls within the water might be successfully avoided 2. 3). managed unlock formUlations of insecticides are outlined as depot structures which regularly free up their poisonous materials into the surroundings over a distinctive time period (usually months to years) 4). in keeping with this definition, such formu lations will be effectively hired the place a protracted publicity to biologically energetic compounds is needed over an extended interval. the subsequent hypothetical instance is meant to demonstrate this 5). In Fig. 1, the length of task of a non-persistent pesticide with a loss price below environmental stipulations of t1/2 = 15 days, is graphically illustrated.
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Additional info for Controlled Release, Biochemical Effects of Pesticides, Inhibition of Plant Pathogenic Fungi
21,103 (1973); American Chemical Society] In a recent study, the uptake, distribution and effectiveness of the active substance was investigated using an EVA formulation of 14C-carbofuran (2 %AI) after root zone application to cotton plants in outdoor plant tubs. When the EVA formulation was applied, the natural aphid attack was, in some parts, completely suppressed even 14 weeks after the beginning of the test. Over the entire test period (32 weeks), the 14C_ carbofuran concentration in the plants treated with EVA was higher than in the case of application of a solution of the active substance into the soil 115).
Bahadir and G. Pfister 100 " 80 CII III 2 ~ 60 ~ o 20 5 10 15 20 25 Time (days) 30 35 40 45 50 Fig. 8. Release of herbicides from dried calcium alginate gel formulations into water (water solubilities in mg· L -1): 0 monolinuron (580), + desmetryne (580), • chloridazon (400), • atrazine (70), f:,. MCPB (44),0 simazin (5) and. chloroxuron (4) of saturated solutions form around the dispersed particles of active substance, from which the dissolved molecules diffuse into the ambient medium. Assuming the same diffusion coefficients in respect of active substances dissolved in the water, the migration rates are alone dependent on their dissolution equilibriums in the gel matrix.
_.. n. LAYER CONDENSED WATER j Fig. 13. The multi-layer model of a pesticidal film (ki + l,i' ~ and ~: rate constants) 38 M. Bahadir and G. Pfister Gas phase 0,5 0 1,0 Ct Co C1 C2 C3 C4 Cs Cs C7 Ca Cg C10 15 10 5 2 Condensed water hO Cd] Fig. 14. ). Since the latter depend on unreproducible meteorological factors and, thus, cannot be quantitatively calculated, these are not taken into consideration in this approximation. In Fig. 12, the half-life value of pesticide release into the gas phase amounts to tl/2 ~ 35 d.