Probability

# Concepts of Probability Theory (2nd Revised Edition) (Dover by Paul E. Pfeiffer

By Paul E. Pfeiffer

Utilizing the easy conceptual framework of the Kolmogorov version, this intermediate-level textbook discusses random variables and likelihood distributions, sums and integrals, mathematical expectation, series and sums of random variables, and random methods. For complex undergraduate scholars of technology, engineering, or arithmetic conversant in simple calculus. comprises issues of solutions and 6 appendixes. 1965 edition.

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Additional resources for Concepts of Probability Theory (2nd Revised Edition) (Dover Books on Mathematics)

Example text

Expectation Random variables are quantities which can be measured in random experiments. This means that the value of the quantity is determined once an experiment has been performed or, in other words, an elementary event has been 30 2 Probability Space chosen. Therefore a random variable is a function of the elementary events (we are considering numerical variables here). The possibility of making a measurement means that for each interval we can observe an event: the measured quantity assumes a value in that interval.

Let At be the event that the state of the system did not change during the time t. Then the conditional probability of At+s (that the state is unchanged a further time s after it was unchanged up to time t) given At must equal simply the probability that the system did not change state during time s. That is, g(s) = P(At+s |At ) = P (At+s ) g(t + s) P (At+s ∩ At ) = = , P (At ) P (At ) g(t) g(t + s) = g(t)g(s). Since 0 ≤ g ≤ 1, it follows that g is montone nonincreasing; g(t+) = g(t)g(0+) and so g(0+) is 0 or 1.

Let A1 , A2 , . . , An be algebras of events. They are independent if and only if Ai and k