Cognitive perspectives on peer learning by Angela M. O'Donnell, Alison King

By Angela M. O'Donnell, Alison King

The contribution of this quantity to the literature on peer studying is its specialize in techniques that mirror a typical obstacle with cognitive tactics established in developmental, details processing, or extra mostly, constructivist views on peer studying. even if the transparent value of the social context of peer studying isn't really neglected, the volume's emphasis is at the cognitive development that happens in the studying surroundings. Any dialogue of peer studying consists of attention of who's studying, how the position of affiliates with whom one works will be conceptualized, what it really is that friends study jointly, what adjustments due to the interplay, and the way we will understand what happens in teams or what has been discovered. The chapters during this ebook converse to those questions. the major query underlying a lot of those others is why we should always fear concerning the intricacies of peer interplay. either the sensible and theoretical purposes for doing so are delineated. The developmental conception awarded within the advent lays the root for the later descriptions of particular concepts, even though a few of the recommendations mirror more than a few different affects to boot. half I provides the consequences of the paintings of 2 significant theorists in cognitive improvement, Piaget (Ch. 1) and Vygotsky (Ch. 2). partly II, six chapters describe numerous peer studying concepts or versions of collaboration, a lot of that are stimulated by way of the paintings of Piaget and Vygotsky. The chapters partially III reflect on the function of the instructor and the abilities wanted whilst utilizing peer studying as a tutorial process. the belief issues to components during which extra examine is required. This quantity is predicated on unique papers provided through the contributing authors in November 1996 on the Rutgers Invitational Symposium on schooling on Cognitive talents and studying With friends.

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Adult regulation ofAdult directs child's behavior butExplicit teaching or behavior child has to account for child's perspec-management by adult. Childtive or get attention. Delayed imitationChild is alone but reenacts other'sAttempt to consolidate previousbehavior including self-otherexperiences. conflicts. -Accommodation. aSee Youniss (1981) for a discussion of various forms of reciprocity. dependencies between the affective, cognitive, and social aspects of the sensory-motor system in the first 2 years of life.

Thus, the idea of perturbation-regulation-compensation sequences has relevance for peer learning. Peers can present obstacles to a child's intended goals and methods of attainment. In addition, by indicating that a child's explanation is unclear or unsatisfactory, peers can stimulate lacunae in a child. Moreover, even without explicit queries by another, the process of attempting to formulate an explanation to another person can give rise to lacunae. With younger children, in particular, adults are more likely than peers to make sense of a child's egocentric communication, thereby reducing the chance of the experience of a lacuna.

6) describe three programs of research that focus on constituting learning communities in elementary and middle school classrooms. The programs are used to illustrate the complexities inherent in designing, implementing, and evaluating models of collaborative learning. In Chapter 7, O'Donnell examines potential difficulties in promoting effective group interaction. The potential benefits of structuring student interactions are discussed. A key assumption related to the use of scripted cooperation (described in detail) is that students may not naturally engage in the kinds of productive processes necessary for effective peer learning.

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