By Mary McAuliffe
Clash among England and France used to be a truth of lifestyles for hundreds of years, yet few observe that its origins date from the time of the Vikings, whilst a Norse chieftain named Rollo validated himself and his progeny in Normandy. during this compelling and exciting historical past, Mary McAuliffe takes the reader again to these darkish and turbulent instances whilst Rollo’s descendants, the dukes of Normandy, asserted their dominance over the susceptible French monarchy—a dominance that grew to become in particular threatening after Duke William conquered England in 1066, giving him a royal crown.
Despite this crown, William the Conqueror and his royal successors remained dukes of Normandy, with feudal responsibilities to their overlord, the king of France. This evidently fostered an ongoing hostility among the French and English crowns that, as McAuliffe convincingly exhibits, grew to become ever extra explosive because the power and territorial holdings of the English monarchs grew. clash erupted frequently through the years, and Eleanor of Aquitaine’s desertion of 1 camp for the opposite in basic terms further gas to the long-simmering feud.
McAuliffe takes the reader again to this dramatic period, supplying the attention-grabbing historical past and context for this “clash of crowns.” She deals colourful insights into Richard Lionheart and Eleanor of Aquitaine in addition to lesser-known French and English monarchs, in particular Philip II of France. Philip proved a made up our minds opponent of Richard Lionheart, and their cutthroat contention not just created deadly divisions in the 3rd campaign but additionally culminated in an incendiary faceoff at Richard’s newly outfitted Château-Gaillard, the doubtless impregnable gateway to empire. the end result might form the process English and French heritage during the centuries that undefined.
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Additional info for Clash of Crowns: William the Conqueror, Richard Lionheart, and Eleanor of Aquitaine-A Story of Bloodshed, Betrayal, and Revenge
ArabiC numerals Several different claims, each having a certain amount of justification, have been made with respect to the origin of modern Western numerals, commonly spoken of as Arabic but more accurately Hindu-Arabic. These include the assertion that the origin is to be found among the Arabs, Persians, Egyptians, and Hindus. It is not improbable that the intercourse among traders served to carry such symbols from country to country, so that modern Western numerals may be a conglomeration from different sources.
Morgan and one of his students, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, showed not only that certain genes seemed to be linked on the same chromosome but that the distance between genes on the same chromosome could be calculated by measuring the frequency at which new chromosomal combinations arose (these were proposed to be caused by chromosomal breakage and reunion, also known as crossing over). In 1916 another student of Morgan’s, Calvin Bridges, used fruit flies with an extra chromosome to prove beyond reasonable doubt that the only way to explain the abnormal inheritance of certain genes was if they were part of the extra chromosome.
The missing link in Darwin’s argument was provided by Mendelian genetics. About the time the Origin of Species was published, Gregor Mendel began his series of experiments with peas. Mendel’s paper, published in 1866, formulated the fundamental principles of the theory of heredity, which accounts for biological inheritance through genes inherited from one’s parent. Mendel’s 55 7 The Britannica Guide to Theories and Ideas That Changed the Modern World 7 discoveries remained unknown to Darwin, however, and, indeed, they did not become generally known until 1900, when they were simultaneously rediscovered by a number of scientists on the continent.