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Cholera Toxins by Dr. Keya Chaudhuri, Prof. S. N. Chatterjee (eds.)

By Dr. Keya Chaudhuri, Prof. S. N. Chatterjee (eds.)

Vibrio cholerae, the causative organism of the affliction Cholera, colonizes the small gut and produces numerous assorted pollutants between which the enterotoxin, or extra widely recognized as cholera toxin (CT), occurs to be the foremost virulence determinant that's accountable for the diarrheal syndrome. This publication offers for the 1st time finished and updated information regarding the entire pollution of Vibrio cholerae, their actual and chemical constructions, their biosynthesis and its genetic law, their body structure, the molecular biology in their interactions with the host in addition to their function within the improvement of a suitable and potent cholera vaccine. It additionally deals appropriate and important history info at the uncomplicated biology of the Vibrio cholerae telephone and cholera bacteriophages.

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Further, the most abundant hydroxylated fatty acid was 3-hydroxy lauric acid (3-OH-C12:0), rather than the more usual 3-hydroxy myristic acid (3-OH-C14:0) (Armstrong and Redmond 1974). Hisatsune et al. (1979) studied the fatty acid composition of LPSs of V. cholerae 35A3 (Inaba), NIH90 (Ogawa) and 4715 (Non-O1). The three strains presented similar fatty acid compositions, with the exceptions of (i) a minor deviation in the relative proportions of the component fatty acids, and (ii) the presence of odd-numbered normal and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, particularly in the LPS from strain 35A3 (Inaba).

Strong acid hydrolysis released phosphorylated Kdo from the LPS of V. cholerae, which could be identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) after reduction and permethylation. It was subsequently established that LPS of V. cholerae contained one residue of Kdo that was phosphorylated (Brade 1985, Kondo et al. 1988, 1992) at the C-4 position and substituted with heptose from the outer core region at the C-5 position (Kondo et al. 1992). The reason for the detection of Kdo-5-P by GLC/MS (Brade 1985) could have been the migration of the P group from the C-4 to the C-5 position under the acidic conditions used during its isolation (Vinogradov et al.

Zymovar analysis or MEE is applied here to investigate the genetic variation of V. cholerae strains and to characterize strains or groups of strains of medical and epidemiological interest. Fourteen loci were analyzed in 171 strains of non-O1 non-O139, 32 classical and 61 El Tor from America, Africa, Europe, and Asia (Freitas et al. 2002). 339. It is shown that the same O antigen (both O1 and nonO1) may be present in several genetically diverse (different zymovars) strains. Conversely, the same zymovar may contain more than one serogroup.

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