By Piotr Garbaczewski, Marek Wolf, Aleksander Weron
The examine of chaotic behaviour of dynamical platforms has prompted new efforts to reconcile deterministic and stochastic methods, in addition to classical and quantum physics. Efforts are being made to appreciate advanced and unpredictable behaviour. this article is an outline of those actions.
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Additional resources for Chaos - The Interplay Between Stochastic and Deterministic Behaviour
It will be seen that a randomized allocation of subjects to a treatment and control group generally ensures that the latter is an adequate standard of comparison for the former. We will start by defining randomization and discussing the properties that make this method particularly attractive. We will then give reasons for doing nonrandomized studies, and distinguish the different types of studies involving a comparison group. For simplicity of presentation, this chapter will be confined mainly to studies with a dichotomous risk factor.
It is useful to make the distinction between a numerical variable and a categorical variable. The levels of a numerical variable are numbers, whereas the levels of a categorical variable are labels. Thus age expressed in years is a numerical variable, whereas age expressed as young-middle-aged/old or religion expressed as Catholic/Protestant/ Jewish/other are categorical variables. , the mean age of a group of individuals). , there are 45 young individuals, 30 middle-aged, and 60 old). , intensive reading program vs.
When the treatment effect is related to a background factor in this way, there is said to be an interaction between the treatment and background factors. The presence or absence of interaction may depend on the measure chosen to express the treatment effect. , 1972) comparing two forms of surgical treatment for breast cancer. 92 Adapted, by permission, from Atkins et al. (1972). Tables 2 to 4. Treatment = surgical procedure: outcome = recurrence; background factor = clinical stage. 30 EXPRESSING T H E TREATMENT EFFECT of local recurrence of malignancy after the surgery.