Ceramic- and Carbon-matrix Composites by Academician V. I. Trefilov (auth.), Academician V. I.

By Academician V. I. Trefilov (auth.), Academician V. I. Trefilov (eds.)

A multi-authored, edited paintings. This quantity varieties a finished treatise at the improvement, manufacture, checking out and functions of a vast diversity of ceramic, glass ceramic and carbon matrix composite fabrics built within the former Soviet Union. for every of those 3 periods of composite fabrics, history concept and huge estate facts also are given.

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1 Classification oj ceramic-matrix composites The class of ceramic-matrix composite materials includes polyphase materials containing, along with the primary (matrix) phase, inclusion phases having an equiaxial or an unequiaxial configuration. Equiaxial inclusions can be either of a regular spherical or polyhedral shape or have irregular outlines. Unequiaxial phases are of an acicular, platelet or fibrous form and can also be present as grain-boundary interlayers. In ceramics, the structural states characteristic of composite materials are created by a statistically uniform or oriented distribution of these constituents; we will conventionally call them 'modifying phases'.

At a high fracture toughness the strength turns out to be substantially below its maximum value and, of course, depends on the defect sizes at which the fracture toughness increases and the crack retardation mechanism becomes effective. Modern ceramic materials employ, as a rule, a combination of several fracture toughness increase mechanisms, the main of which are reduction of the effective size of a structural element (grain), toughening by phase transformation, precipitation hardening, matrix reinforcement with fibres, initiation of crack branching process, and creation of a microcracked structure.

Based on the condition d Wide = 0, first introduced by Griffith, the stress at which the crack growth occurs is found: eTc = nE(G c + Vf'rire) . , I1G c grows with increasing stress 'ri needed to pull a fibre out of the matrix. At the crack extension it is necessary, however, that a fibre be pulled out of the matrix rather than be broken by the crack front. , the adhesive strength at the interface, should not exceed the value of CTr/k. 12). 10). JEI1Glcmax = 100 MPa m 112, which greatly exceeds the actually attainable values for materials not reinforced with fibres.

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