By Rita Martins de Sousa
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Extra info for Brazilian Gold and the Lisbon Mint House (1720-1807)
This led to different forms of taxation under the Yüan (such as greater emphasis on labor services and the establishment of hereditary soldier households) that had profound implications for women. Local Conditions: The Prefecture of Chien-ning, Fukien The national conditions of the Sung and the Mongol invasion form the general context of this book, but much of the evidence used is connected to the region of Northern Fukien, in particular the prefecture of Chienning. The two collections of legal cases, one from the Southern Sung and one from the Yüan, on which I rely for many of my conclusions, were both produced in Chien-ning, a center of commercial publishing during this period.
In a memorial assessing the successes and failures of the community granary system, Chu Hsi’s son-in-law Huang Kan, while a prefect of Chien-ning, had this to say: Of all the customs I have seen in Fukien, Chien-ning-fu’s are the worst, making it the hardest area to govern. The mountains are steep and the rivers are dangerous; thus the common people like to quarrel and they treat human life lightly. The soil is bad, and the hillside ﬁelds are cramped; thus the great families lack a sense of charity and are miserly about donating grain [to the poor].
Chs. 1 and 2. There were various limits on who could sit for the examinations, and each candidate had to be recommended by local ofﬁcials; Chaffee, Thorny Gates, 53–61. There is disagreement over the extent to which local elites could exclude candidates from the prefectural examination halls and thus limit competition and social mobility; see Chaffee, Thorny Gates, 60 and 223 n. 97; and Hymes, Statesmen, 42–6. The qualiﬁcation of some candidates to sit the examinations was at times contested in court; see for example Ming-kung shu-p’an ch’ing-ming chi (Beijing: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1987), 97–8 [hereafter cited as CMC].