By Jamie A. Davies MA (Cantab.), Ph.D. (auth.)
Branching morphogenesis, the production of branched constructions within the physique, is a key function of animal and plant improvement. This ebook brings jointly, for the 1st time, professional researchers engaged on a number of branching structures to provide a state of the art view of the mechanisms that keep an eye on branching morphogenesis. platforms thought of variety from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct platforms to complete physique plans, and ways diversity from commentary via test to targeted biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in evaluate of branching.
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Together, these findings indicate not only that Slit proteins serve multifunctional roles, but also that the nature of the morphoregulatory response appears to be dependent on the neuronal cell type and developmental stage, potentially allowing individual populations within the same cortical environment to pursue separate developmental programs. Hormones and Hormone-Like Factors Hormonal influences on neuronal morphogenesis have been examined extensively, revealing dendrite-specific regulatory effects for both gonadal hormones and glucocorticoids, and pleiotropic actions for thyroid hormones.
Slit Proteins Slit proteins are secreted factors with multifunctional roles during neuronal development, including growth cone chemorepulsion at the CNS midline during axon pathfinding, stimulation of axonal elongation in some cell contexts, and the recently characterized promotion of branching. '^'^^''^^^'^^^'^^^'^^^ Mammalian Slit protein signaling is mediated in turn by homologs of Drosophila Robo receptor proteins, Robol-3, which demonstrate an expression pattern complementary to that of Slit isoforms during CNS development.
Two non-mutually exclusive scenarios may account for these observations: first, cell-autonomous regulation, or exposure to certain epigenetic factors, may inidate a program of biochemical changes that gradually restricts neuronal sensitivity to branching cues; second, the progressive stabilization of individual branches may bias ongoing microtubule transport into these more mature processes. Similar analysis of axonal branching probability will be necessary to determine whether changes in the rate of branching morphogenesis follows stereotyped developmental trends for both neurite classes.