Branching Morphogenesis by Jamie A. Davies MA (Cantab.), Ph.D. (auth.)

By Jamie A. Davies MA (Cantab.), Ph.D. (auth.)

Branching morphogenesis, the construction of branched buildings within the physique, is a key function of animal and plant improvement. This ebook brings jointly, for the 1st time, professional researchers engaged on various branching structures to provide a cutting-edge view of the mechanisms that keep an eye on branching morphogenesis. structures thought of variety from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct platforms to whole physique plans, and methods diversity from statement via scan to unique biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in evaluation of branching.

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407^i2 The modulation of particular aspects of differentiation by neurotrophin activity appears to depend on the cell-surface distribution of Trk receptor isoforms, the activation of individual transduction pathways, the availability of downstream signaling substrates, and the developmental context of exposed neurons. ^^'^^5'^^^'^^ For example, actin, micrombules, and numerous microtubule-associated proteins have been reported to be regulated by NT-3 and BDNF at the level of both transcription and post-translational modification.

However, in certain cell contexts full-length Slit proteins also stimulate branching morphogenesis. ^^ ^ Together, these findings indicate not only that Slit proteins serve multifunctional roles, but also that the nature of the morphoregulatory response appears to be dependent on the neuronal cell type and developmental stage, potentially allowing individual populations within the same cortical environment to pursue separate developmental programs. Hormones and Hormone-Like Factors Hormonal influences on neuronal morphogenesis have been examined extensively, revealing dendrite-specific regulatory effects for both gonadal hormones and glucocorticoids, and pleiotropic actions for thyroid hormones.

201 24 Branching Morphogenesis Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Surface Adhesion Molecides Morphological changes that accompany the development of branches involve dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization, in part regulated through interactions between neuronal cell-surface receptors and the local extracellular matrix. ^"^'"^^^'"^^^'^^^ As such, axonal outgrowth, guidance, and the establishment of appropriate neuronal connectivity, are critically dependent on the spatial distribution of ECM cues within the extracellular milieu.

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