By Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)
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Additional info for Biological Molecules
REPLICATION OF INFORMATION. When a cell divides, its DNA has to be duplicated exactly-a process called replication. This is achieved largely by the use of hydrogen bonds and matching complementary shapes. The DNA occurs as a double-stranded molecule (the so-called double helix) in which the nitrogenous bases of one strand complement those of the other strand. Essentially the same information is present in each strand: if the sequence of bases in one strand is known then the sequence in the other strand can also be determined because the bases pair only in certain ways (Fig.
Answers to Exercises 1. 20! That is. 20 x 19 x 18 x 17 ... which comes out to 2 X 10 18 . The exclamation mark is a mathematical symbol meaning factorial 20. 2. All except the hydrocarbons. -CH 3 and -CH 2CH 3 · 3. High latent heat of evaporation; less dense at 4°C than at O°C so that ice floats; liquid at biological temperatures. 4. Methane is symmetrical (tetrahedral) with an even distribution of electrons. 5. Oil and water (the major component of the vinegar) do not mix. It takes energy to disrupt the hydrogen-bonded structure of the water so that the oil can get into the body of the water.
Thus, the group of atoms outlined in Fig. 18, often called apeptide unit, is an essentially rigid planar structure. Rotation about the N-ea bond is denoted by ep, C a -C' by 'IJ, and the C' -N (usually fixed, as explained above) by w(Fig. 19). The delocalization of the electrons in the peptide bond means that they occupy more space, effectively lowering their energy. This feature contributes about 120 kJ mol- 1 ofresonance stabilization energy to the peptide bond. \ / H \ H +/ C-N +-----+ C=N (f \ cf- \ Fig.