By Arthur D. Broadbent
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Extra info for Basic Principles of Textile Coloration
Fabrics containing wool and cotton, however, may contain substantial amounts of natural impurities that impede uniform wetting. These include hydrophobic waxes that are difficult to emulsify. The preparation of wool or cotton fabrics can involve much of a textile finishing mill’s resources. Some of the processes that are used in the preparation of materials made from natural fibres are discussed below. Raw wool fibres may contain 30–50% of impurities including wool wax (often called grease), and inorganic salts (suint), as well as varying amounts of dirt, straw, excrement, and burrs.
These are carboxylic acids with an amino group attached to the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group. 3). There will usually be one amino and one carboxylate end group derived from the appropriate terminal amino acids. 3 Whatever the chemical structure of a fibrous polymer, the nature of the groups along the molecular chain and the end groups determine its chemical and dyeing behaviour. As outlined above, an apparently homogeneous sample of a polymer consists of a variety of molecules of varying length and mass.
They have poorly defined melting points, or decompose before melting. Not all polymers form fibres. Those polymers that do, have a high molecular weight and long, unbranched, linear molecules with regular structures. Alignment of the long polymer molecules along the fibre axis results in intermolecular attractive forces and the formation of crystalline regions. This promotes fibre strength. Although intermolecular bonding is weak, these attractive forces, between aligned neighbouring molecules along a significant portion of their length, provide resistance to deformation and chain slippage.