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Barriers to Competition: The Evolution of the Debate by Ana Rosado Cubero

By Ana Rosado Cubero

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The number and size-distribution of producers. 3. - The general method of price-making. 4. - Method of selling. 5. - The character and means of market information. 6. - The geographical distribution of production and consumption. 7. - The degree of current control of output. 8. - Variation of cost with varying size of plant or enterprise. 9. - Variation of cost with short-run fluctuations of output. 10. 74 The main issue to solve was the use of capacity installed in an industry, while it is conditioned to demand fluctuations, the margin to reach equilibrium at the same time in short and in long run will be reduced.

39 The rules of thumb should be considered a worthwhile proxy to a model of rationality behaviour, and this route was followed by several scholars from different origins, Fritz Machlup, William Baumol, Joan Woodward, Richard Caves and Garrel Pottinger are some examples. In the 1960s, Herbert Simon, Joe Bain, Richard Cyert and James March created and developed the Behaviourism School and at the end of this decade; Oliver Williamson developed a model of business behaviour that focuses on the self-interested behaviour of corporate managers.

The same year that Clark and Clark published their book, the Federal Trade Commission61 started its role in consumer defence. The welfare of customers – as opposed to market power – came to be considered the measure of companies in the markets, because fair price of products due to competition indicates an increase in customer welfare and reduction of market price control by companies. 63 How many losses could be measured by the misallocation of resources? 64 34 Barriers to Competition Clark and Pigou’s arguments about the allocation of resources and the power of big companies, use the argument that it is social welfare that has become the way to defend social earnings against private ones.

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