B.C First Nations Studies by Kenneth Campbell, Charles Menzies, Brent Peacock

By Kenneth Campbell, Charles Menzies, Brent Peacock

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First Nations Studies method involved fishing at night from canoes using torch lights to attract the fish. One person held a burning torch over the water, while another speared the salmon or trout. Many technologies were used for catching other varieties of fish. Oolichan arrived in rivers in such large quantities that they could be caught in long, funnel-shaped nets, in dip nets, or with rakes. These rakes were also used for herring. Halibut, which live on the ocean bottom, were caught with highly specialized hooks which were anchored in groups near the ocean floor.

Stewardship Stewardship is the care and management of the local resources. It implies a responsibility to respect and protect the resources in return for using them. Material culture Material culture refers to objects that are made and used by a group of people. As a field of study, it includes the techniques for making objects, how they were used, and how they connected with the daily lives and beliefs of the people. C. First Nations Studies Gathering Plants Plants were an important raw material for many aspects of First Nations’ daily, ceremonial, and spiritual life.

As you will see in a later chapter, as a result of land claims and a number of landmark court cases dealing with Aboriginal rights and resource base issues, today First Nations are reclaiming their roles as stewards of their territories. 49 50 C H A P T E R 3 Sharing the Land and Resources T he First Nations of British Columbia were selfsufficient and used the resources of their territories to produce the goods they needed. However, they did not live in isolation. They traded with neighbouring villages and with more distant nations, exchanging surplus food and materials for items they could not obtain locally.

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