Astrophysics at Very High Energies: Saas-Fee Advanced Course by Felix Aharonian, Lars Bergström, Charles Dermer, Roland

By Felix Aharonian, Lars Bergström, Charles Dermer, Roland Walter, Marc Türler

With the luck of Cherenkov Astronomy and extra lately with the release of NASA’s Fermi venture, very-high-energy astrophysics has gone through a revolution within the final years. This publication offers 3 entire and updated experiences of the hot advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer deal with our present wisdom at the resources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the right measurements made through the recent instrumentation. Lars Bergström offers the demanding situations and clients of astro-particle physics with a selected emphasis at the detection of darkish subject applicants. the subjects coated by means of the fortieth Saas-Fee path current the services of present instrumentation and the physics at play in resources of very-high-energy radiation to scholars and researchers alike. This ebook will motivate and get ready readers for utilizing area and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, in addition to neutrino and different multi-messenger detectors.

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On the other hand, the principal possibility of extension of the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) technique towards 10 GeV promises a new breakthrough in gamma-ray astronomy [27]. The (relatively) large gamma-ray fluxes in this energy interval, together with the huge detection areas offered by the IACT technique, can provide the highest gamma-ray photon statistics compared to any other energy band of cosmic gamma-radiation. Thus, in the case of realization of 10 GeV threshold IACT arrays, the presently poorly explored interval between 10 and 100 GeV could become one of the most advanced domains of gammaray astronomy with a great potential for studies of highly variable phenomena.

The energy spectrum of gamma-rays has a symmetric form with two sharp peaks at E γ ∼ m e c2 and E γ ∼ E + . This implies that the energy of relativistic positron 32 F. Aharonian is transferred mainly to the leading photon. For a power-law spectrum of positrons, −α the spectrum of annihilation radiation at E γ m 2c has a power-law N+ ∝ E + form (11) Jann (E γ ) ∝ E γ−(α+1) [ln(2E γ /m 2c ) − 1] . The total cross-section of annihilation of a relativistic positron of energy ε+ is given by σann = 38 σT2 (E + /m e c2 )−1 [ln(2E + /m e c2 ) − 1].

The synchrotron cooling time for a particle of mass m and energy E in a magnetic field of strength B is m 3 m e c2 mc2 . (20) tsynchr = 6π me cσT B 2 E 4 The cooling time of a protons is much longer, by a factor of m p /m e ≈ 1013 , compared to the synchrotron cooling time of an electron of same energy. Therefore in astrophysics the electron synchrotron radiation is far more important process compared to the proton synchrotron radiation, although the latter in some specific conditions can also be an effective mechanism of gamma-radiation.

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