Army Regulars on the Western Frontier, 1848-1861 by Durwood Ball

By Durwood Ball

Deployed to posts from the Missouri River to the Pacific in 1848, the U.S. military undertook an previous venture on frontiers new to the U.S.: occupying the western territories; suppressing American Indian resistance; holding the peace between feuding Indians, Hispanics, and Anglos; and consolidating usa sovereignty within the area. Overshadowing and complicating the frontier army project have been the politics of slavery and the growing to be rift among the North and South. As normal troops fanned out around the American West, the various population of the area intensified their festival for average assets, political autonomy, and cultural survival. Their conflicts usually erupted into violence that propelled the military into revolt responsibility and bloody battle. reading the whole continuum of martial strength within the American West, Durwood Ball unearths how common troops waged struggle on American Indians to implement federal legislation. He additionally offers info at the army's army interventions opposed to filibusters in Texas and California, Mormon rebels in Utah, and violent political partisans in Kansas. in contrast to prior histories, this booklet argues that the politics of slavery profoundly prompted the western project of the common army--affecting the hearts and minds of officials and enlisted males either because the country plummeted towards civil warfare.

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Bull Sumner's advice was to withdraw the army, leave behind arms and ammunition, and let the Hispanos govern themselves and fight Indians in their time-honored way. They would be much happier, and the American people a little richer, On 10 September I 852 he gladly transferred the executive office to Gov. ~~ Bullied enough by Sumner, New Mexicans returned his spite. Published in the Annual Report of the Secretary of Warat year's end, Surnner's official counsel infuriated New Mexicans, Anglo and Hispano.

Richard B. ~ 4 ARMY REGULARS O N T H E WESTERN FRONTIER A fifty-three-year-old artilleryman from Virginia, the doe-eyed Washington inherited a tumultuous territory. Two-hundred-year-old wars between Indians-Navajos, Apaches, Utes, Comanches, and Kiowas-and New Mexicans wracked the settlements and Indian homelands. Conquered Hispanos and victorious Anglos deeply resented one another, and their mutual animosity sometimes erupted in street violence in the major towns. Residents, both Anglo and Hispano, clamored for an end to the military government-army tyranny they called it-that had ruled them since Brig.

Euroamericans especially coveted the fertile river valleys such as the Rogue and Umpqua draining west into the Pacific and the Willamette rolling north to the Columbia. In early 1850 the department under Lt. Col. William W. ~ l Beginning in I 853 Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River became a new political jurisdiction, Washngton Territory, and the Eleventh Military Department was abolished. All troops and posts in the Tenth and Eleventh fell under the Department of the Pacific until, five years later, the War Department created the Department of Oregon and gave the command to Brig.

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