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Army Regulars on the Western Frontier, 1848-1861 by Durwood Ball

By Durwood Ball

Deployed to posts from the Missouri River to the Pacific in 1848, the USA military undertook an previous challenge on frontiers new to the USA: occupying the western territories; suppressing American Indian resistance; conserving the peace between feuding Indians, Hispanics, and Anglos; and consolidating usa sovereignty within the sector. Overshadowing and complicating the frontier army challenge have been the politics of slavery and the turning out to be rift among the North and South. As general troops fanned out around the American West, the varied population of the area intensified their festival for normal assets, political autonomy, and cultural survival. Their conflicts usually erupted into violence that propelled the military into rebel responsibility and bloody struggle. analyzing the entire continuum of martial strength within the American West, Durwood Ball unearths how common troops waged warfare on American Indians to implement federal legislations. He additionally presents info at the army's army interventions opposed to filibusters in Texas and California, Mormon rebels in Utah, and violent political partisans in Kansas. in contrast to past histories, this publication argues that the politics of slavery profoundly stimulated the western venture of the common army--affecting the hearts and minds of officials and enlisted males either because the country plummeted towards civil warfare.

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INTRODUCTION XXXi This page intentionally left blank A m y Regulars on the WesternFrontier This page intentionally left blank PROLOGUE Senate ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on 10 March 1848 ended the Mexican-American War and lit the fuse to the Civil War. As victorious United States troops, professional and volunteer, retired from central and northern Mexico, the regulars slowly began garrisoning the new American West from Missouri to the Pacific Coast and from Texas to the northern plains.

His sketch included "a view of the Sierra Nevada in the distance, a sheaf of wheat, a bear, . . a grape vine in the foreground, and the motto ' E ~ r e k a . " An independent party nominated him for governor, but the old warrior declined. On I 3 November 1849 the people went to the polls in drenching rain, voted in a free-state constitution, and elected Peter A. Burnet governor and John McDougal lieutenant governor. Speaking on behalf of President Taylor, Secretary of War Crawford sanctioned the statehood process and Riley's course of action.

L Beginning in I 853 Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River became a new political jurisdiction, Washngton Territory, and the Eleventh Military Department was abolished. All troops and posts in the Tenth and Eleventh fell under the Department of the Pacific until, five years later, the War Department created the Department of Oregon and gave the command to Brig. Gen. William S. Harney. The aim of the new department, now independent of California,was to provide Harney a free hand to crush Indian resistance in the Pacific Northwest, but he was removed in fall I 860 and the War Department again folded Oregon and California into the Department of the Pacific.

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