Antisemitism Its History And Causes by Bernard Lazare

By Bernard Lazare

Bernard Lazare's arguable magnum opus, initially released in France in 1894, asks why the Jews have aroused such hatred for 3 thousand years. The journalist, notwithstanding severed from his Jewish upbringing, was once fiercely devoted to social justice and will no longer forget about a surprising antisemitism within the fin-de-siècle circles he knew. In seek mg for its old motives, he was once additionally trying to find his personal roots and position on this planet. As biographer Nelly Wilsonhas famous, younger Lazare used to be "constantly engaged in a discussion with himself" whilst he wrote Antisemitism, Its historical past and Causes.
Lazare starts off his "impartial learn" by way of contemplating no matter what within the Jewish personality can be in charge for antisemitism. Then he seems to be outward to these international locations between which the Israelites dispersed, reading the various faces of antisemitism from Greco-Roman antiquity to the tip of the 19th century. Lazare brings his examine and research to endure on no matter what shape antisemitism has taken: ethnic, nationalist, fiscal, social, literary, philosophical. spotting that antisemitism is essentially according to worry of the stranger and the necessity for a scapegoat, Lazare concludes with a stunning state of affairs for the longer term. This awesome publication conveys Lazare's personal religious progress. France's Dreyfus Affair within the Nineties could provoke him to a passionate conflict opposed to antisemitism.

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The fanatical rabbis appealed to the fanaticism of the Dominicans, they denounced the Guide of the Perplexed and had it burned by the inquisition. At the instigation of a German doctor, Asher Ben Yechiel, a synod of thirty rabbis met at Barcelona, with Ben Adret in the chair, and excommunicated all those who read books other than the Bible and the Talmud, when under twenty-five years. A counter-excommunication was proclaimed by Jacob Tibbon, who, at the head of all Provencial rabbis, boldly defended condemned science.

CLI, Quaest, 10, Migne, P. , XXXIII. 38 Adversus Judaeos, 10, Migne, P. , XLVIII. 39 Eusebius, Vita Constantini, III, 18, 20. 40 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 16. 41 Codex Theodosianus, 1. XVI, tit. IX, 3, 4, 5. 42 Codex Justinianeus 1. I, tit. IX, 6. 43 Cod. , b. XVI, tit. viii, 5. 44 Code Theodosien, 1. XVI, tit. VIII, 28. 45 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 17 and Cod. , 1. XVI, tit. VIII, 14. 46 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 18. 47 Justinianus, Novellae, 45. 48 Codex Justinianeus, 1.

It was decreed that the moneys which were sent by [46] the Israelites to Palestine should be paid into the imperial treasury; (45) they were debarred from holding public office; (46) they were assessed with hard and oppressive curial taxes; (47) they were practically deprived of their special tribunals. (48) The vexations were not confined to that; the Jews were harassed even in the observance of their religion; the law undertook to regulate the manner of observing the Sabbath; (49) they were ordered not to celebrate their Passover before Easter, and Justinian went as far as to prohibit them from reciting the daily prayer, the Schema, which proclaimed one God, as against the Trinity.

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