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Annals of Parisian Typography, Containing an Account of the by William Parr Greswell

By William Parr Greswell

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Trading agreements When pursuing diversification into either a new market segment or overseas, a trading agreement can offer a tremendous learning opportunity and generate worthwhile profits and cash flow for a modest investment. Alternatively a trading agreement may be a valid strategic goal. Supermarkets, and even soccer clubs, may decide to exploit their brand strength by offering a mobile phone service to their customers or financial services such as a credit card. Typically, the supermarket or soccer club will enter the market by securing a trading agreement with a major mobile phone operator or financial institution.

Consider a private contract caterer which operates in a local geographic area and enjoys a high market share. A nationwide acquirer would be able to virtually eliminate the directors, head office staff and costs by folding the business under the existing regional management structure. Consequently, the rule of thumb in the market sector is to value businesses on a multiple of gross profit. In these circumstances, it is unlikely that an overseas acquirer wishing to enter the market could match the price because there would not be similar overhead savings.

For example, retaining two sales executives or needing to recruit another assistant accountant. Also, there will be significant one-off costs including: • termination payments to staff • new livery on vehicles • new stationery • outstanding liabilities on a property leasehold • the realizable value, costs and timescale for selling freehold premises • equipment hire liabilities Strategic rarity or significance value must be taken into account Rarity value is real, strategic significance may be subjective.

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