Ancient Art in Miniature. Near Eastern Seals from the by Holly Pittman

By Holly Pittman

Исследования искусства Ирана IV-II тыс. до н.э. по материалам коллекции музея Метрополитен и коллекции Черкаски.

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Example text

Later chapters will consider the production, characteristics and dyeing of all these fibres. 1 PROPERTIES OF FIBRES A fibre is characterised by its high ratio of length to thickness, and by its strength and flexibility. Fibres may be of natural origin, or artificially made from natural or synthetic polymers. They are available in a variety of forms. Staple fibres are short, with length-to-thickness ratios around 10 3 to 104, whereas this ratio for continuous filaments is at least several millions.

For example, the denier of a continuous filament is the weight in grams of 9000 m. A considerable number of older measures gave the yarn count as the number of hanks, containing a defined length of yarn, obtained from a given weight of fibre. Different standard lengths were used for different fibres. For example, a cotton count of 40 corresponds to 40 hanks, each containing 840 yd of yarn produced from 1 lb of cotton fibre. The standard lengths for wool vary from 100 to 560 yd hank–1 depending on the region and the spinning system used.

Beating the dried fabric pulverises and removes the brittle cellulose hydrolysis products. 3). The acid remaining in the wool serves for subsequent dyeing operations. 2 shows a typical production sequence for manufacture of a cotton jersey. 6). All these processes remove unwanted material from the cotton and improve its quality. In singeing, the fabric rapidly passes through a gas flame. This burns off any short fibres projecting from the fabric surface that abrasion has lifted from the yarns during weaving.

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