By Nigel Thrift

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Best geography books

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Sample text

2 Observation Equation To transfer a raw gravimeter reading, here given in counter units, to a gravity value, the calibration has to be known. In addition, a time-dependent instability of the counterforce (fading of the spring tension) should be considered in the observation equation. g. small temperature changes within the sensor case or mechanical impulses caused by transportation, may change the gravimeter’s reading considerably. This instrumental drift can be modelled by a loworder polynomial and requires repeated measurements, temporally well distributed over the measuring period, of at least some of the network points.

Timmen bt = b − b0 = GMm rm GMm lm − , 2 2 r lm lm rm m (24) where Mm is the mass of the Moon, G the gravitational constant, lm and rm the distances between point P and the Moon and between the Earth’s centre of gravity 0 and the Moon, respectively. Because of the Earth’s rotation and the continuously varying distances of the Sun and the Moon from the Earth, a large number of waves (partial tides) have to be considered to model the theoretical tides for a rigid (not deformable) Earth’s body. The ephemerides of the celestial bodies are well known from astronomy which allows the precise calculation of the rigid Earth tides.

The drift is determined by repeated point occupations during a day which allows a modelling by a low-order polynomial with time; see (23). Depending on the network structure, the instrumental behaviour and the required accuracy, different measurement methods can be applied to control and determine the drift of 30 L. 5 Mean 436 361 532 433 383 177 309 378 592 69 78 −49 412 469 327±189 Fig. 14 Measuring procedures for drift control: (a) profile method with weak drift control, (b) step method with strong drift control (three times each tie and overlaps) an instrument which is shown in Fig.

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