An Introduction to Astrophysical Hydrodynamics by Steven N. Shore

By Steven N. Shore

This publication is an advent to astrophysical hydrodynamics for either astronomy and physics scholars. It offers a complete and unified view of the final difficulties linked to fluids in a cosmic context, with a dialogue of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. it's the purely e-book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and scholars will locate this paintings to be a good reference. Contents contain chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.

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We still use the same kind of "as if" epistemology in approaching cosmic environments where we do not have a complete handle on the processes involved but can observe what appear to be phenomenological behaviors similar to those noted in the laboratory. The roots of much of astrophysical thought lie deep within the soil of the last century, and since many of the problems of astrophysics currently revolve around large-scale fluid motion, it seems appropriate to pause to consider the forebears of this mode of scientific exploration.

We know one very important fact from experience: friction produces drag. This is a force that acts along the surface of an immersed body. Because it is along each surface, rather than normal to it, friction must be represented by offdiagonal components in the stress tensor. We can expect that any repre­ sentation of the fluid's tendency to resistance to motion through viscosity will therefore depend on the shear (see Fig. 1). For an inviscid fluid, the stress tensor is simply the one we have derived from kinetic theory, namely T = 3p (the trace of the stress tensor).

It must therefore be comoving with the surface, and this is the region called the boundary layer. The essential feature of a boundary layer is that it is a region of locally low Reynolds number. Here the velocity, f/, is large but L, the scale length, is small. Therefore the viscous terms dominate the flow and the region moves almost as a harmonic flow with the surface. A short distance outside this region, however, the fluid quickly reverts to its nearly inviscid state and the advective derivative again dominates.

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