By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Naval Studies Board, Committee for an Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology
Committee for an review of Precision Time and Time period technological know-how and know-how, nationwide learn Council, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, Naval reviews Board
Knowledge of time is key to specific wisdom of place, and for that reason the army, with its have to navigate at the excessive seas, has traditionally performed an immense function within the improvement and alertness of complicated time attention and dissemination applied sciences. Discoveries coming from easy learn funded by means of the place of work of Naval learn (ONR) lie on the center of modern maximum functionality atomic clocks, Naval study Laboratory (NRL) services performed a task in constructing the space-qualified atomic clocks that permit the worldwide Positioning process (GPS), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) continues and disseminates the normal of time for all the division of protection (DOD). The army has made significant investments in so much elements of precision time and time period (PTTI) technology and know-how, even though particular PTTI-related examine has additionally been funded by means of the protection complex study tasks employer (DARPA) and non-DOD firms reminiscent of the nationwide technological know-how beginning (NSF), the nationwide Aeronautics and house management (NASA), and the dep. of trade. army investment, mostly via ONR, has a heritage of being an early enabler of key new advancements. really apt investment judgements by means of the Navy-particularly by means of ONR application officers-have underpinned lots of the significant advances in PTTI technological know-how and know-how (S&T) within the final 50 years.
PTTI is critical to fashionable naval wishes, and certainly to all of the armed providers, to be used in either navigation and communications. specified time synchronization is required to successfully verify the beginning of a code series in safe communications, to accomplish navigation, and to find the location of sign emitters. certain frequency regulate is needed in communications for spectrum usage and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum ideas. there are various examples of crucial army operations that rely on PTTI and will reap the benefits of advancements in PTTI expertise. those contain:
-GPS clocks and self reliant operations,
-Weapon process 4-dimensional coordination,
-Network-centric conflict, and
-Secure army communications.
This file summarizes that rate reductions within the dimension, weight, and gear standards and raises within the ruggedness of PTTI units with out sacrificing functionality might positioned extra actual and designated timekeeping within the arms of the warrior, bettering services in all the above operations.
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Extra resources for An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology
5 (3) Lab. 19 (13) Ind. 9 (6) Ind. 3 (2) Univ. Lab. Ind. 32 (22) 24 (17) 13 (9) 22 (15) Univ. Lab. Ind. , industrial laboratories. Information estimated from the advance program for 2002. Numbers in parentheses are percentages. S. industry papers decreased dramatically. S. universities in 2001-2002. S. university work in atomic physics gets presented at physics conferences rather than at the IEEE-IFCS. S. university contributions in acoustics is largely attributable to sensor papers. S. contributions and those of other countries at the IEEE-IFCS conference.
Industrial research and development in high-performance standards. Inconsistent funding has also made it difficult for companies to train and maintain a skilled engineering staff. DOD Support of Applied PTTI Investigations The development of PTTI products meeting military requirements has come almost exclusively as a result of DOD support. Because of PTTI’s critical role in providing enhanced operational capabilities, 3Michael R. , briefing to the committee on March 26, 2002. 26 AN ASSESSMENT OF PRECISION TIME AND TIME INTERVAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY the importance to the Navy and the entire DOD of supporting their development cannot be overestimated.
Improvements in crystal oscillators can decrease the vulnerability of frequency-hopping systems to smart jammers and improve the ability to locate radio emitters in the field. Low-Noise Resonators and Oscillators Several technologies for low-noise oscillators need to be explored. These include (1) surface transverse-wave resonators and dielectric resonator oscillators for ultralow noise floors and (2) novel bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators for vibration-insensitive oscillators.