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An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and by Howard Markel

By Howard Markel

Acclaimed scientific historian Howard Markel lines the careers of 2 amazing younger doctors--Sigmund Freud, neurologist, and William Halsted, surgeon--showing how their strong addictions to cocaine formed their huge, immense contributions to psychology and medicine.
 
When Freud and Halsted started their experiments with cocaine within the Eighteen Eighties, neither they, nor their colleagues, had any concept of the drug's strength to dominate and endanger their lives. An Anatomy of Addiction tells the tragic and heroic tale of every guy, by chance struck down in his best through an insidious illness: tragic as a result of the time, relationships, and overall healthiness cocaine compelled every one to squander; heroic within the severe conflict every one guy waged to beat his ailment. Markel writes of the actual and emotional harm brought on by the then-heralded ask yourself drug, and the way every one guy eventually replaced the area inspite of it--or due to it. One grew to become the daddy of psychoanalysis; the opposite, of recent surgical procedure. here's the whole tale, lengthy neglected, instructed in its wealthy historic context.  

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And, as he recognized, this freedom was only limited to the propertied men of the world of letters. 41 A critical examination of the history of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century European (as well as American) cities demonstrates the practical difficulties of supporting a philosophy of equal access given the race, class, and gender segregations and hierarchies that dominated the use of public space. Access to public space was severely restricted in planned and unplanned ways. 42 The problem of being “at home” in public for those left out of the imagination of the bourgeois public sphere has been a long drawn out process that continues into the present century.

But this darkness was not the awe-inspiring darkness of the sublime; this darkness repulsed. William Hunter in his Statistical Account of Bengal, published in 1875, deployed a similar rhetoric to describe the dark, “uninhabited,” jungles of the Sunderbans. 23 The Sunderbans were meant to serve as a contrast to the civilized phenomenon of white Calcutta, while reminding the British residents of the closeness of feral and fearful nature. Preparing the document six decades after Maria Graham penned her description of the Sagar Island, Hunter was in effect extending the impression of the Sagar Island to the Sunderbans, thereby lending administrative authority of a “natural scientist” to a popular British perception.

13 However, Mrs. Sherwood does not seem to be in control at the moment of landing – agitated by the waves and howling naked men. When the colonizer symbolically takes possession of the land – at that moment of landing – an inversion occurs. Mrs. Sherwood is not the surveyor as she disembarks; nature embodied by naked natives takes possession of her, dispossessing her of innate rationality. Such inversions in colonial travel narratives, always declared to be momentary, were necessary to highlight and reassure the norm of objective colonial control.

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