This consultant offers terminology to accomplish and record at the visible situation of concrete in carrier. It features a list of the numerous info that could be thought of in creating a file and outlines for numerous concrete stipulations linked to the sturdiness of concrete.
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Additional info for ACI 201.1R-08: Guide for Conducting a Visual Inspection of Concrete in Service
Other compounds that can effectively be used as dye fixing agents are ammonium compounds, such as fatty acid-diamine condensates. Examples include the Page 33 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2008 Developments in Colour Protection for Detergents Colour protection agents hydrochloride, acetate, metasulphate and benzyl hydrochloride of oleyldiethyl aminoethylamide, oleylmethyldiethylenediaminemethosulphate, monostearyl-ethylene diaminotrimethylammonium methosulphate and oxidised products of tertiary amines; derivatives of polymeric alkyldiamines, polyaminecyanuric chloride condensates and aminated glycerol dichlorohydrins.
The hypochlorite decomposes to form Page 29 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2008 Developments in Colour Protection for Detergents Colour care hypochlorous acid and free radicals, especially in the presence of metal ions (species having an unpaired electron), which are reactive with, and oxidise, the fabric’s hydroxyl groups. At lower pH the hydroxyl groups can oxidise to aldehyde groups, which are responsible for yellowing. In order to prevent this, a borate system has been developed which, in the presence of a catalyst, forms an ester with the fabric, so protecting the hydroxyl groups from oxidation.
However, there is no commercially available DTI in Ciba’s portfolio, and TinoFix remains its only offering in the colour protection space. Ciba is already finding success in the auxiliaries market with its Tinosorb UV absorbers, designed to be added to the wash to increase the sun protection of lightweight Page 40 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2008 Developments in Colour Protection for Detergents Dye transfer inhibitors 5 garments during the summer months. The company has marketed this product to the detergent industry for several years, and in 1999 it launched a version targeted at fabric softeners.