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Abkhaz: A Comprehensive Self-Tutor by George Hewitt

By George Hewitt

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An Abkhaz Newspaper Reader (with supplements). Kensington (Maryland): Dunwoody Press. Hohlig, M. 1983. Adighe Alfabet. Berlin. 2nd cd. with Turkish and English glosses, 1990. F. 2006. Crammatika abxazskogo lileraturnogo jazyka [Grammar o f the Abkhaz Literary Language]. Sukhum: Academy Press. G. N. 2003. Samouchitel' abxazsogo jazyka, chast' I ]Sclf-tutor for the Abkhaz Language, Part 1]. Sukhum: Soros Foundation. A. 2005. Abxazsko-russkij slovar' (Abkhaz-Russian Dictionary], 2. vols. Sukhum: University Press.

That the - k is restored in the presence o f the adjective. l8 Also possible is the sequence шзи оба uaa д (ы )у(к), which again combines free-standing and d is ­ posed cardinal with a noun unmarked for plurality, as in the alternative in footnote 16. l9Nole the possible presence o f the human pluraliser on the adjective. e. g. цәа аажәа '2 0 apples', yaca шзк '1 0 0 sheep'). In view o f the greal range o f possibilities, perhaps one should observe as rule o f thumb: for human nouns treat the numeral as an independent word, but for non-human nouns prefix it lo the noun.

The possessor stands in front o f the possessed noun, and the latter takes 'These three plural forms are sometimes pleonastically marked for plurality by adding ihe non-human pluraliser -қәа. 2 Bul, when so used, the pleonastic pluraliser o f the equivalent pronominal form is impossible. ■1In the Caucasus a bourka is ihe usually black, heavy fell-cloak worn by shepherds and (traditionally al least) others spending lime out o f doors as a protection against the elements. g. the tree's) leaf/leaves' (ла(ра)) лашәа/лашәақәа 'her song/songs' (ҳа(ра)) ҳбаҳча/ҳбаҳчақза 'our garden/gardens' (шәа(ра)) шзашьа/шзашьцәа 'your-PL brolher/brolhers' (да(ра)) раҳәшьа/раҳәшьцәа 'their sister/sisters' As we see, the personal pronoun is itself optional, usually used only for purposes of emphasis, as the information it conveys is recapitulated by the possessive prefix.

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