By Kerson Huang
This fascinating ebook offers the actual and mathematical history for a thought describing the universe as a quantum superfluid, and the way darkish strength and darkish subject come up. featuring a unique concept spanning many alternative fields in physics, the major options in each one box are introduced.The reader is barely anticipated to understand the rudiments of condensed subject physics, quantum box concept and common relativity to discover this attention-grabbing new version of darkish subject and darkish power as points of a cosmic superfluid.
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Additional info for A Superfluid Universe
27) En (k ) = ωn (k) |qn (k )|2 2 where ωn is a normal frequency. The energy is equal to k B T, by the equipartition of energy. 29) The dominant contribution comes from the smallest ωn (k ), which corresponds to the Goldstone mode, with ωn (k ) = ck. 30) which diverges at the lower limit for D ≤ 2, but is otherwise convergent. In other words, ﬂuctuations in the long-wavelength Goldstone mode will destroy long-ranged order for D ≤ 2, but not otherwise. The other effect that could destroy long-ranged order is gravitational clumping.
References  K. S. Schwarz, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5782 (1985); Phys. Rev. 38, 2389 (1988). com by LA TROBE UNIVERSITY on 10/29/16. For personal use only. Quantum turbulence master 33  R. P. 1, ed. C. J. 17.  D. Lathrop, Phys. Today, 3 June, 2010.  G. D. Holman, Phys. Today, 65, 56 (2012).  J. Koplik and H. Levine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1375 (1993).  D. Kivotides, C. F. Barenghi, D. C. Samuels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155301 (2001).  J. Maurer and P. Tabeling, Europhys. Lett. 43, 29 (1998).
It is determined only up to gauge transformations, and one can impose the “Lorentz gauge” ∂μ Bμν = 0 plus Bk0 = 0  to reduce the number of independent components of Bμν to one. com by LA TROBE UNIVERSITY on 10/29/16. For personal use only. where S0 describes the potential ﬂow of the superﬂuid, and S1 speciﬁcally describes the quantized vorticity. 28) into S1 , and the second term comes from a term −dG/dt, where G is the generator of the canonical transformation, needed to preserve the canonical form of the equations of motion.