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A contribution to the history of the unaccented vowels in by William Pierce Shephard

By William Pierce Shephard

From the INTRODUCTION.
In all languages owning a good built expiratory accessory there's stumbled on an inclination to weaken the syllables which stand at the reduce phases of accentuation. The power dedicated to the construction of the syllable on which the main accessory rests makes priceless a discount within the strength of the expiration of the opposite syllables of the notice. The vowels of those syllables then express a lack of sonority; and are vulnerable to be lowered to that caliber which calls for the smallest amount of expiratory strength for his or her articulation. simply that half is left that is completely important for the lifestyles of the syllable. Or, in different situations, the relief may match nonetheless farther. Then the weaker syllables disappear totally; the power as soon as expended on their creation is going to swell the tension given to the extra hugely accented syllables, and so they lose their self reliant lifestyles. to monitor the impression of those traits, we have now purely to match a language with a chromatic—or musical—accent with one owning a robust expiratory rigidity. within the former, the entire vowels are articulated relatively and customarily preserved via lengthy sessions of improvement; within the latter, they're first diminished in strength, their articulation is slurred or hasty, they usually usually disappear fullyyt. for instance, in historical Greek, which had certainly a tone-accent, there are nearly no examples of the syncope of unaccented vowels. the one instances of loss are as a result of the next contraction of 2 vowels status in hiatus after the outfall of an intervocal j or w. yet within the Teutonic department, nonetheless, the vowels of the unaccented syllables are consistently weakened; from the earliest interval this tendency might be saw, and its operation is unchecked at the moment day. In sleek English those vowels are always slurred in pronunciation, and are usually weakened to the so-called '' irrational'' vowel (the sound of u in but), that is usually an insignificant voice-glide, with out determined articulation.

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There are a number of possible ways of accounting for these differences of position, all based on the assumption of omission through homoeoteleuton and subsequent restoration of the missing words. However, the most satisfactory of these presuppose that the version behind '£thelweard's Chronicon was one of the copies that replaced the missing material in the wrong place, viz. either: (a) The correct position of the account is after the first three clauses of annal 851, the accidental misplacing of the material being caused by the presence of the words 'J prer micel wrel geslogon J sige namon' in both annal 845 and annal 851, a scribe's eye travelling forwards from some point in the last two clauses of annal 845 (as they now stand in the vernacular versions) to the identically worded second and third clauses of Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 45 e :1 a annal 851.

The missing material in this case would have included not only the battle at Sandwich but also the reference to heathen men for the first time overwintering in southern England. The scribe or a subsequent corrector. noticing the omission, could have inserted the passage in anyone of two or three diferent places. If the layout resembled that of MS A, he could have copied the bulk of it in the space between annals 845 and 851, with, perhaps, the final clause, 'J hrepne men",rest [on Tenet] ofer winter sreton', in the space between annal-numbers 852 and 853 to the left of annal 851.

199 One of these a-spellings, as we have seen, is found also in B; a second corresponds to an o-spelling in A, where it is the preferred form in hands 2a_d. 2OO 0 likewise has an instance of manig in this section , again corresponding to an o-spelling in A. 20! In the circumstances, it seems probable that all the o-spellings are derived from the common archetype of the surviving manuscripts, and that it was a manuscript behind MS B Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 25 and the first part of C (to 652) that adopted the manig- form as its norm.

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