By Mukul Sarkar
Biological platforms are a resource of concept within the improvement of small independent sensor nodes. the 2 significant varieties of optical imaginative and prescient platforms present in nature are the one aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the so much compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible procedure of bugs lets them fly with a constrained intelligence and mind processing strength. A CMOS photo sensor replicating the conception of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this booklet for commercial (machine imaginative and prescient) and clinical functions.
The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer capable of feel polarization details. This polarization info is proven to be valuable in functions like genuine time fabric category and self sufficient agent navigation. extra the sensor is provided with in pixel analog and electronic stories which enable version of the dynamic diversity and in-pixel binarization in genuine time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to duplicate the flickering influence of the insect’s eye to discover smallest attainable movement in keeping with the switch in kingdom. An in-built counter counts the alterations in states for every row to estimate the course of the movement. The chip includes an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS method from UMC.
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Extra info for A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor
Duparre et al. introduced another artificial compound eye structure using planar micro-lens array called APCO (Artificial Apposition Compound Eye). Different from the Tanida’s model, each micro-lens in the system imaged only a small portion of the object in their field of view. The final image is formed by splicing the partial images directly. 12. The artificial apposition compound eye consists of a micro-lens array positioned on a substrate, preferably with optical isolation of the channels, and an optoelectronic detector array of different pitch in the micro-lenses’ focal plane.
10. Separation walls Micro-lens array Original image Pixel array Captured, blurred, low resolution unit images Fig. 10 The TOMBO (Thin Observation Module by Bound Optics) architecture  Tanida et al. in 2000 developed an imaging system based on compound eye, consisting of a micro-lens array with planar structure, an optical separate layer and a photodetector array called TOMBO (an acronym for Thin Observation Module by Bound Optics). A micro-lens and its array of photosensitive cells together form an imaging unit.
19(a). The function of the first lens is to capture the correct part of light from the total FOV and to have some focusing towards the second lens. The second lens focuses the light towards a spot on the detector. 19(b), (c). The lenses, substrates and pedestals are fabricated in poly-methyl-methacrylate (pmma) material. 20 shows the simulated light spots on the detector. The central spot and the outer spots originating from the incident rays for which the channel was optimized, are shown. The other spots come from incident rays with an angular difference of 1°.